@2 years ago with 216 notes
#pot #Marijuana #mary jane #chronic #illegal #legalize it 

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic.

myencephalonjourneys:

More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke.Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

@3 years ago with 1 note
#tobacco #weed #marijuana #smoke #smoking #lung cancer #cancer #cannabis 

Heavy Marijuana Use Doesn't Damage Brain 

Long-term and even daily marijuana use doesn’t appear to cause permanent brain damage, adding to evidence that it can be a safe and effective treatment for a wide range of diseases, say researchers.

The researchers found only a “very small” impairment in memory and learning among long-term marijuana users. Otherwise, scores on thinking tests were similar to those who don’t smoke marijuana, according to a new analysis of 15 previous studies.

In those studies, some 700 regular marijuana users were compared with 484 non-users on various aspects of brain function — including reaction time, language and motor skills, reasoning ability, memory, and the ability to learn new information.

Surprising Finding

"We were somewhat surprised by our finding, especially since there’s been a controversy for some years on whether long-term cannabis use causes brain damage," says lead researcher and psychiatrist Igor Grant, MD.

"I suppose we expected to see some differences in people who were heavy users, but in fact the differences were very minimal."

The marijuana users in those 15 studies — which lasted between three months to more than 13 years — had smoked marijuana several times a week or month or daily. Still, researchers say impairments were less than what is typically found from using alcohol or other drugs.

"All study participants were adults," says Grant, professor of psychiatry and director of the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research Center at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine.

"However, there might be a different set of circumstances to a 12-year-old whose nervous system is still developing."

10 States OK Marijuana Use

Grant’s analysis, published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, comes as many states consider laws allowing marijuana to be used to treat certain medical conditions. Earlier this year, Maryland became the 10th state to allow marijuana use to relieve pain and other symptoms of AIDSmultiple sclerosis, cancer, glaucoma, and other conditions — joining Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.

Medicinal marijuana is available by prescription in the Netherlands and a new marijuana drug is expected to be released in Great Britain later this year. In the U.S. and elsewhere, Marinol, a drug that is a synthetic form of marijuana and contains its active ingredient, THC, is available by prescription to treat loss of appetite associated with weight loss in AIDS patients.

Grant says he did the analysis to help determine long-term toxicity from long-term and frequent marijuana use. His center is currently conducting 11 studies to determine its safety and efficacy in treating several diseases.

"This finding enables us to see a marginal level of safety, if those studies prove that cannabis can be effective," Grant tells WebMD. "If we barely find this effect in long-term heavy users, then we are unlikely to see deleterious side effects in individuals who receive cannabis for a short time in a medical setting, which would be safer than what is practiced by street users."

Grant’s findings come as no surprise to Tod Mikuriya, MD, former director of non-classified marijuana research for the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Narcotics and Drug Abuse Studies and author of The Marijuana Medical Handbook: A Guide to Therapeutic Use. He is currently president of the California Cannabis Medical Group, which has treated some 20,000 patients with medicinal marijuana and Marinol.

'Highly Effective Medicine'

"I just re-published a paper of the first survey for marijuana toxicity done in 1863 by the British government in India that was the most exhaustive medical study of its time in regards to possible difficulties and toxicity of cannabis. And it reached the same conclusion as Grant," Mikuriya tells WebMD.

"This is merely confirming what was known over 100 years ago, as well as what was learned by various government findings doing similar research — marijuana is not toxic, but it is a highly effective medicine."

In fact, marijuana was available as a medicinal treatment in the U.S. until the 1930s.

Lester Grinspoon, MD, a retired Harvard Medical School psychiatrist who studied medicinal marijuana use since the 1960s and wrote two books on the topic, says that while Grant’s finding provides more evidence on its safety, “it’s nothing that those of us who have been studying this haven’t known for a very long time.

"Marijuana is a remarkably safe and non-toxic drug that can effectively treat about 30 different conditions," he tells WebMD. "I predict it will become the aspirin of the 21st century, as more people recognize this.”

@3 years ago
#brain #pot #marijuana #weed #health #study #research #smoking 
If you smoke weed, you should already follow most of these tips…

If you smoke weed, you should already follow most of these tips…

@3 years ago
#how to not get caught #marijuana #precautions #smoking #stoners #tips #weed #comic 
@3 years ago
#bob marley #weed #joint #spliff #marijuana 
<3 x infinity.

<3 x infinity.

@3 years ago with 24 notes
#bob marley #herb #bud #marijuana #weed 

Sube El Humo - Cultura Profetica.

@3 years ago with 13 note and 67389 play
#sube el humo #cultura profetica #reggae #spanish #spanish reggae #music #M.O.T.A #Mota #weed #marijuana 

Magick and Marijuana

thelunatikwitch:

A controversial topic, the use of drugs within ritual/spiritual practice…I’d like to focus specifically upon the use of Marijuana and its effects which can be harnessed/experienced by the Witch.

The spiritual effects of Marijuana is dependent entirely upon who you are, where you are on your spiritual journey, and your intentions in using the plant. Many seekers who embrace Marijuana as a sacrament find the conscious altering plant spiritually beneficial, opening their minds up to a whole new realm, because “getting high” focuses their attention inward, towards the realm of spirit. It alters our state of consciousness and increases alpha brain waves much like in meditation and other trance work. Marijuana can also turn on parts of the brain that have remained dormant and free our consciousness to wander into new, unexplored terrains of our deep unknown psyche. The manifested experience while under the intoxication of marijuana can be of great psychological intensity, transformation and meaning, from producing an experience of insight and spiritual blessedness at one extreme…to suffering/anxiety, fear of going mad and maladaptive behavior at the other extreme. Each experience is dependent on who one is, their spirituality, their beliefs, their social and cultural conditioning, etc.

Marijuana has been used ritually as a spiritual tool since ancient times [in MANY cultures and traditions] and like any other tool, it can be used for destructive or creative purposes. If a seeker approaches its power wisely and maturely, marijuana may expand their consciousness and aid one in tapping into new found psychic ability. Since marijuana heightens our vibrations, as opposed to the lowering of vibrations as with alcohol and other intoxicants, marijuana can be used as a smudging tool to cleanse a space of negative energy, similar to the way sage does, for its energy resonates with purification, liberation, peace and unity. Marijuana has the capacity to allow the user to penetrate the truth of how things are much more clearly, passing through the illusions of the ego or conscious mind. According to many spiritual faiths and traditions, including Dionysian, Tao, and Rastafarian philosophy “the Herb is the key to new understandings of the Self, the Universe, and the Divine. It is the vehicle to cosmic consciousness”. The use of this plant can bring one closer to nature, and while affected by marijuana, seekers can achieve spiritual experiences which can have a powerful long-term effect. The primary spiritual experiences are a sense of unity with the cosmos, stimulated interest in spiritual and philosophical matters, contact with divine beings or a Higher Power (whether that be personally viewed as an external expression of a deity or an internal expression of ones Higher Self), and a sense of deep peace and euphoria. These mystical effects tend to occur at higher levels of intoxication. Marijuana users frequently report feeling connected to “The All”; contact with Divine beings; a deep sense of peace and contentment; a shift in their values away from materialism toward more spiritual interests and concerns, etc. Just meeting spiritual beings or having an out of body experience can spiritually transform people by opening them up to all sorts of new possibilities, allowing them to shed limiting fears, and launching them on a quest for new wisdom and experience. Marijuana can allow us to tap into that higher part of ourselves that extends to creation, or God/dess.

The term “to get High”, accurately reflects marijuana’s spiritual effects. When most people smoke the plant, they become fully present in the moment of now, dropping all emotional resistance and sinking into a state of appreciation. As a result, their vibration heightens, opening their minds to life and other people and thus facilitating a greater psychic and spiritual awareness. As a vehicle for meditation, marijuana has an effect with regard to thinking, the ability to allow for more free associative thought processes, opening the mind and allowing one thought to lead to another.  If one wishes to gain knowledge from the plant, know that it can only teach you what you already know, putting ones own spiritual knowledge into practice. Even if this knowledge is buried deep within your memories, with marijuana your memories can make new connections and create ideas at a faster rate, aiding your perception and helping you see everything from a more clearer perspective.

The main problem with the way most major religious organizations view drugs is they see it as providing the user with an ‘illusion’, and clouding their perception of reality. What psychedelics, including marijuana, really do is put one into a state of heightened self-awareness and self-examination. A state where you come into intimate contact with your own psyche. I personally believe, similar to todays studies of Quantum physics, that the consensus reality is the illusion, and that which you perceive while in this state of heightened self-awareness is more “real” or meaningful than anything you perceive in the course of your physical and mundane life. Your perception determines your reality, and this is why marijuana is an excellent tool for therapy, meditation, seeking spiritual enlightenment, etc, because by altering your perception of reality, you can see it for the illusion that it is, and that is what true “enlightenment” really means. If we are receptive to the thoughts that come from deep within us, from the collective universal unconscious, we can stop searching for enlightenment, because it will have found us. As the Wiccan teaching of the “Charge of the Goddess” states - “For that which you seek, if thou shall not find it within, thou will never find it without”.

Marijuana used under the proper psychological conditions is able to facilitate the manifestation of Psi. Higher levels of intoxication are usually indicated as the threshold for these effects. Heavier users experiences Psi more frequently than lighter users. These include:

Telepathy; mind reading, rather than simply being more sensitive to the subtle cues in others behavior, one is able to become more in-sync with anothers thoughts, and brain waves.

Precognition; acquiring knowledge about things happening at a distance in space or time, foreseeing the future.

Clairvoyance; such as the ability to see aura’s around people, and the ability to see spiritual beings and energy.

Out-of-body experiences; or astral projection, transcending the body to higher spiritual planes of existence. Users more involved in personal growth tend to report more OBE’s.

I am in no way declaring that marijuana use is the only way to achieve these spiritual states/experiences… but i do express that it is a natural tool which can be beneficial to a witches spiritual practice. It is a powerful herb and in my own personal experience with Marijuana as a practicing witch and mystic, i have found that:

Magickal [altered] states of consciousness while under the spell of the plant can become intense and potentially dangerous if one is lacking strong will and ill prepared. Divine or Spiritual possession/channeling is more easily achieved due to the loss of control of the individual conscious self, a freeing of the ego identity, the mind and one’s awareness. It is a removal of psychological boundaries and defenses. Astral projection or “Out-of-body” experiences are also more easily achieved for this reason, a detachment of the spirit from the body and transcendence into other planes of consciousness. Psychic ability and trance work are heightened, but their control is easily lost. One becomes psychically powerful, yet at the same time psychically vulnerable. Spells [as a focusing of energy to a desired outcome] will become difficult if not near impossible to perform due to the lack of controlling the mind and focusing the energy towards a specific purpose. Energy raising on the other-hand will be greatly enhanced, but easily lost and prematurely released as the energy fades with the scattered, unfocused mind. Philosophical and mystical thought grows strong, and the ability to delve deeply into the magickal worlds, laws and universal understandings and truths will amaze, but the ability to hold onto the mystery before it is lost in Lethe [the part of your mind where all things forgotten lay hidden, waiting til they are brought back to the surface] is the key. Of its effects upon the aura, clairvoyantly it can been seen as a beautiful green, and a bright silver/white colour, and is able to open the heart, third eye and crown chakra’s.

@3 years ago with 7 notes
#weed #marijuana #spiritual #effects #high #telepathy #precognition #clairvoyance #out of body experience 

Twist it, Hit it, Light it - Three 6 Mafia.

always loved this song, even before I started cheifing…

@3 years ago with 7 note and 479 play
#three 6 mafia #dj paul #music #twist it #hit it #light it #weed #marijuana #pot #bud 

Study Finds No Cancer-Marijuana Connection 

The largest study of its kind has unexpectedly concluded that smoking marijuana, even regularly and heavily, does not lead to lung cancer.

The new findings “were against our expectations,” said Donald Tashkin of the University of California at Los Angeles, a pulmonologist who has studied marijuana for 30 years.

"We hypothesized that there would be a positive association between marijuana use and lung cancer, and that the association would be more positive with heavier use," he said. "What we found instead was no association at all, and even a suggestion of some protective effect."

Federal health and drug enforcement officials have widely used Tashkin’s previous work on marijuana to make the case that the drug is dangerous. Tashkin said that while he still believes marijuana is potentially harmful, its cancer-causing effects appear to be of less concern than previously thought.

Earlier work established that marijuana does contain cancer-causing chemicals as potentially harmful as those in tobacco, he said. However, marijuana also contains the chemical THC, which he said may kill aging cells and keep them from becoming cancerous.

Tashkin’s study, funded by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute on Drug Abuse, involved 1,200 people in Los Angeles who had lung, neck or head cancer and an additional 1,040 people without cancer matched by age, sex and neighborhood.

They were all asked about their lifetime use of marijuana, tobacco and alcohol. The heaviest marijuana smokers had lighted up more than 22,000 times, while moderately heavy usage was defined as smoking 11,000 to 22,000 marijuana cigarettes. Tashkin found that even the very heavy marijuana smokers showed no increased incidence of the three cancers studied.

"This is the largest case-control study ever done, and everyone had to fill out a very extensive questionnaire about marijuana use," he said. "Bias can creep into any research, but we controlled for as many confounding factors as we could, and so I believe these results have real meaning."

Tashkin’s group at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA had hypothesized that marijuana would raise the risk of cancer on the basis of earlier small human studies, lab studies of animals, and the fact that marijuana users inhale more deeply and generally hold smoke in their lungs longer than tobacco smokers — exposing them to the dangerous chemicals for a longer time. In addition, Tashkin said, previous studies found that marijuana tar has 50 percent higher concentrations of chemicals linked to cancer than tobacco cigarette tar.

While no association between marijuana smoking and cancer was found, the study findings, presented to the American Thoracic Society International Conference this week, did find a 20-fold increase in lung cancer among people who smoked two or more packs of cigarettes a day.

The study was limited to people younger than 60 because those older than that were generally not exposed to marijuana in their youth, when it is most often tried.

@3 years ago
#cancer #lung cancer #marijuana #pot #research #smoking #study #weed 
Birds flying high, you know how I feel&#8230;

Birds flying high, you know how I feel…

@3 years ago
#bird #birds #hummingbird #high #marijuana #weed #bud #herb #photography 
Weed, love &amp; peace. :D 

I saw this in the bathroom stall at the tech center.

Weed, love & peace. :D I saw this in the bathroom stall at the tech center.

@3 years ago with 1 note
#weed #love #peace #marijuana #cannabis #graffiti 
@3 years ago
#cannabis #spiritual #spirituality #religion #weed #marijuana #art 
sad thing is this is so true.

sad thing is this is so true.

@3 years ago with 5 notes
#weed #marijuana #antidepressants #psychiatrists 
2 years ago
#pot #Marijuana #mary jane #chronic #illegal #legalize it 
Magick and Marijuana

thelunatikwitch:

A controversial topic, the use of drugs within ritual/spiritual practice…I’d like to focus specifically upon the use of Marijuana and its effects which can be harnessed/experienced by the Witch.

The spiritual effects of Marijuana is dependent entirely upon who you are, where you are on your spiritual journey, and your intentions in using the plant. Many seekers who embrace Marijuana as a sacrament find the conscious altering plant spiritually beneficial, opening their minds up to a whole new realm, because “getting high” focuses their attention inward, towards the realm of spirit. It alters our state of consciousness and increases alpha brain waves much like in meditation and other trance work. Marijuana can also turn on parts of the brain that have remained dormant and free our consciousness to wander into new, unexplored terrains of our deep unknown psyche. The manifested experience while under the intoxication of marijuana can be of great psychological intensity, transformation and meaning, from producing an experience of insight and spiritual blessedness at one extreme…to suffering/anxiety, fear of going mad and maladaptive behavior at the other extreme. Each experience is dependent on who one is, their spirituality, their beliefs, their social and cultural conditioning, etc.

Marijuana has been used ritually as a spiritual tool since ancient times [in MANY cultures and traditions] and like any other tool, it can be used for destructive or creative purposes. If a seeker approaches its power wisely and maturely, marijuana may expand their consciousness and aid one in tapping into new found psychic ability. Since marijuana heightens our vibrations, as opposed to the lowering of vibrations as with alcohol and other intoxicants, marijuana can be used as a smudging tool to cleanse a space of negative energy, similar to the way sage does, for its energy resonates with purification, liberation, peace and unity. Marijuana has the capacity to allow the user to penetrate the truth of how things are much more clearly, passing through the illusions of the ego or conscious mind. According to many spiritual faiths and traditions, including Dionysian, Tao, and Rastafarian philosophy “the Herb is the key to new understandings of the Self, the Universe, and the Divine. It is the vehicle to cosmic consciousness”. The use of this plant can bring one closer to nature, and while affected by marijuana, seekers can achieve spiritual experiences which can have a powerful long-term effect. The primary spiritual experiences are a sense of unity with the cosmos, stimulated interest in spiritual and philosophical matters, contact with divine beings or a Higher Power (whether that be personally viewed as an external expression of a deity or an internal expression of ones Higher Self), and a sense of deep peace and euphoria. These mystical effects tend to occur at higher levels of intoxication. Marijuana users frequently report feeling connected to “The All”; contact with Divine beings; a deep sense of peace and contentment; a shift in their values away from materialism toward more spiritual interests and concerns, etc. Just meeting spiritual beings or having an out of body experience can spiritually transform people by opening them up to all sorts of new possibilities, allowing them to shed limiting fears, and launching them on a quest for new wisdom and experience. Marijuana can allow us to tap into that higher part of ourselves that extends to creation, or God/dess.

The term “to get High”, accurately reflects marijuana’s spiritual effects. When most people smoke the plant, they become fully present in the moment of now, dropping all emotional resistance and sinking into a state of appreciation. As a result, their vibration heightens, opening their minds to life and other people and thus facilitating a greater psychic and spiritual awareness. As a vehicle for meditation, marijuana has an effect with regard to thinking, the ability to allow for more free associative thought processes, opening the mind and allowing one thought to lead to another.  If one wishes to gain knowledge from the plant, know that it can only teach you what you already know, putting ones own spiritual knowledge into practice. Even if this knowledge is buried deep within your memories, with marijuana your memories can make new connections and create ideas at a faster rate, aiding your perception and helping you see everything from a more clearer perspective.

The main problem with the way most major religious organizations view drugs is they see it as providing the user with an ‘illusion’, and clouding their perception of reality. What psychedelics, including marijuana, really do is put one into a state of heightened self-awareness and self-examination. A state where you come into intimate contact with your own psyche. I personally believe, similar to todays studies of Quantum physics, that the consensus reality is the illusion, and that which you perceive while in this state of heightened self-awareness is more “real” or meaningful than anything you perceive in the course of your physical and mundane life. Your perception determines your reality, and this is why marijuana is an excellent tool for therapy, meditation, seeking spiritual enlightenment, etc, because by altering your perception of reality, you can see it for the illusion that it is, and that is what true “enlightenment” really means. If we are receptive to the thoughts that come from deep within us, from the collective universal unconscious, we can stop searching for enlightenment, because it will have found us. As the Wiccan teaching of the “Charge of the Goddess” states - “For that which you seek, if thou shall not find it within, thou will never find it without”.

Marijuana used under the proper psychological conditions is able to facilitate the manifestation of Psi. Higher levels of intoxication are usually indicated as the threshold for these effects. Heavier users experiences Psi more frequently than lighter users. These include:

Telepathy; mind reading, rather than simply being more sensitive to the subtle cues in others behavior, one is able to become more in-sync with anothers thoughts, and brain waves.

Precognition; acquiring knowledge about things happening at a distance in space or time, foreseeing the future.

Clairvoyance; such as the ability to see aura’s around people, and the ability to see spiritual beings and energy.

Out-of-body experiences; or astral projection, transcending the body to higher spiritual planes of existence. Users more involved in personal growth tend to report more OBE’s.

I am in no way declaring that marijuana use is the only way to achieve these spiritual states/experiences… but i do express that it is a natural tool which can be beneficial to a witches spiritual practice. It is a powerful herb and in my own personal experience with Marijuana as a practicing witch and mystic, i have found that:

Magickal [altered] states of consciousness while under the spell of the plant can become intense and potentially dangerous if one is lacking strong will and ill prepared. Divine or Spiritual possession/channeling is more easily achieved due to the loss of control of the individual conscious self, a freeing of the ego identity, the mind and one’s awareness. It is a removal of psychological boundaries and defenses. Astral projection or “Out-of-body” experiences are also more easily achieved for this reason, a detachment of the spirit from the body and transcendence into other planes of consciousness. Psychic ability and trance work are heightened, but their control is easily lost. One becomes psychically powerful, yet at the same time psychically vulnerable. Spells [as a focusing of energy to a desired outcome] will become difficult if not near impossible to perform due to the lack of controlling the mind and focusing the energy towards a specific purpose. Energy raising on the other-hand will be greatly enhanced, but easily lost and prematurely released as the energy fades with the scattered, unfocused mind. Philosophical and mystical thought grows strong, and the ability to delve deeply into the magickal worlds, laws and universal understandings and truths will amaze, but the ability to hold onto the mystery before it is lost in Lethe [the part of your mind where all things forgotten lay hidden, waiting til they are brought back to the surface] is the key. Of its effects upon the aura, clairvoyantly it can been seen as a beautiful green, and a bright silver/white colour, and is able to open the heart, third eye and crown chakra’s.

3 years ago
#weed #marijuana #spiritual #effects #high #telepathy #precognition #clairvoyance #out of body experience 
Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic.

myencephalonjourneys:

More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke.Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

3 years ago
#tobacco #weed #marijuana #smoke #smoking #lung cancer #cancer #cannabis 

Twist it, Hit it, Light it - Three 6 Mafia.

always loved this song, even before I started cheifing…

3 years ago
#three 6 mafia #dj paul #music #twist it #hit it #light it #weed #marijuana #pot #bud 
Heavy Marijuana Use Doesn't Damage Brain→

Long-term and even daily marijuana use doesn’t appear to cause permanent brain damage, adding to evidence that it can be a safe and effective treatment for a wide range of diseases, say researchers.

The researchers found only a “very small” impairment in memory and learning among long-term marijuana users. Otherwise, scores on thinking tests were similar to those who don’t smoke marijuana, according to a new analysis of 15 previous studies.

In those studies, some 700 regular marijuana users were compared with 484 non-users on various aspects of brain function — including reaction time, language and motor skills, reasoning ability, memory, and the ability to learn new information.

Surprising Finding

"We were somewhat surprised by our finding, especially since there’s been a controversy for some years on whether long-term cannabis use causes brain damage," says lead researcher and psychiatrist Igor Grant, MD.

"I suppose we expected to see some differences in people who were heavy users, but in fact the differences were very minimal."

The marijuana users in those 15 studies — which lasted between three months to more than 13 years — had smoked marijuana several times a week or month or daily. Still, researchers say impairments were less than what is typically found from using alcohol or other drugs.

"All study participants were adults," says Grant, professor of psychiatry and director of the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research Center at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine.

"However, there might be a different set of circumstances to a 12-year-old whose nervous system is still developing."

10 States OK Marijuana Use

Grant’s analysis, published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, comes as many states consider laws allowing marijuana to be used to treat certain medical conditions. Earlier this year, Maryland became the 10th state to allow marijuana use to relieve pain and other symptoms of AIDSmultiple sclerosis, cancer, glaucoma, and other conditions — joining Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.

Medicinal marijuana is available by prescription in the Netherlands and a new marijuana drug is expected to be released in Great Britain later this year. In the U.S. and elsewhere, Marinol, a drug that is a synthetic form of marijuana and contains its active ingredient, THC, is available by prescription to treat loss of appetite associated with weight loss in AIDS patients.

Grant says he did the analysis to help determine long-term toxicity from long-term and frequent marijuana use. His center is currently conducting 11 studies to determine its safety and efficacy in treating several diseases.

"This finding enables us to see a marginal level of safety, if those studies prove that cannabis can be effective," Grant tells WebMD. "If we barely find this effect in long-term heavy users, then we are unlikely to see deleterious side effects in individuals who receive cannabis for a short time in a medical setting, which would be safer than what is practiced by street users."

Grant’s findings come as no surprise to Tod Mikuriya, MD, former director of non-classified marijuana research for the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Narcotics and Drug Abuse Studies and author of The Marijuana Medical Handbook: A Guide to Therapeutic Use. He is currently president of the California Cannabis Medical Group, which has treated some 20,000 patients with medicinal marijuana and Marinol.

'Highly Effective Medicine'

"I just re-published a paper of the first survey for marijuana toxicity done in 1863 by the British government in India that was the most exhaustive medical study of its time in regards to possible difficulties and toxicity of cannabis. And it reached the same conclusion as Grant," Mikuriya tells WebMD.

"This is merely confirming what was known over 100 years ago, as well as what was learned by various government findings doing similar research — marijuana is not toxic, but it is a highly effective medicine."

In fact, marijuana was available as a medicinal treatment in the U.S. until the 1930s.

Lester Grinspoon, MD, a retired Harvard Medical School psychiatrist who studied medicinal marijuana use since the 1960s and wrote two books on the topic, says that while Grant’s finding provides more evidence on its safety, “it’s nothing that those of us who have been studying this haven’t known for a very long time.

"Marijuana is a remarkably safe and non-toxic drug that can effectively treat about 30 different conditions," he tells WebMD. "I predict it will become the aspirin of the 21st century, as more people recognize this.”

3 years ago
#brain #pot #marijuana #weed #health #study #research #smoking 
Study Finds No Cancer-Marijuana Connection→

The largest study of its kind has unexpectedly concluded that smoking marijuana, even regularly and heavily, does not lead to lung cancer.

The new findings “were against our expectations,” said Donald Tashkin of the University of California at Los Angeles, a pulmonologist who has studied marijuana for 30 years.

"We hypothesized that there would be a positive association between marijuana use and lung cancer, and that the association would be more positive with heavier use," he said. "What we found instead was no association at all, and even a suggestion of some protective effect."

Federal health and drug enforcement officials have widely used Tashkin’s previous work on marijuana to make the case that the drug is dangerous. Tashkin said that while he still believes marijuana is potentially harmful, its cancer-causing effects appear to be of less concern than previously thought.

Earlier work established that marijuana does contain cancer-causing chemicals as potentially harmful as those in tobacco, he said. However, marijuana also contains the chemical THC, which he said may kill aging cells and keep them from becoming cancerous.

Tashkin’s study, funded by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute on Drug Abuse, involved 1,200 people in Los Angeles who had lung, neck or head cancer and an additional 1,040 people without cancer matched by age, sex and neighborhood.

They were all asked about their lifetime use of marijuana, tobacco and alcohol. The heaviest marijuana smokers had lighted up more than 22,000 times, while moderately heavy usage was defined as smoking 11,000 to 22,000 marijuana cigarettes. Tashkin found that even the very heavy marijuana smokers showed no increased incidence of the three cancers studied.

"This is the largest case-control study ever done, and everyone had to fill out a very extensive questionnaire about marijuana use," he said. "Bias can creep into any research, but we controlled for as many confounding factors as we could, and so I believe these results have real meaning."

Tashkin’s group at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA had hypothesized that marijuana would raise the risk of cancer on the basis of earlier small human studies, lab studies of animals, and the fact that marijuana users inhale more deeply and generally hold smoke in their lungs longer than tobacco smokers — exposing them to the dangerous chemicals for a longer time. In addition, Tashkin said, previous studies found that marijuana tar has 50 percent higher concentrations of chemicals linked to cancer than tobacco cigarette tar.

While no association between marijuana smoking and cancer was found, the study findings, presented to the American Thoracic Society International Conference this week, did find a 20-fold increase in lung cancer among people who smoked two or more packs of cigarettes a day.

The study was limited to people younger than 60 because those older than that were generally not exposed to marijuana in their youth, when it is most often tried.

3 years ago
#cancer #lung cancer #marijuana #pot #research #smoking #study #weed 
If you smoke weed, you should already follow most of these tips&#8230;
3 years ago
#how to not get caught #marijuana #precautions #smoking #stoners #tips #weed #comic 
Birds flying high, you know how I feel&#8230;
3 years ago
#bird #birds #hummingbird #high #marijuana #weed #bud #herb #photography 
3 years ago
#bob marley #weed #joint #spliff #marijuana 
Weed, love &amp; peace. :D 

I saw this in the bathroom stall at the tech center.
3 years ago
#weed #love #peace #marijuana #cannabis #graffiti 
&lt;3 x infinity.
3 years ago
#bob marley #herb #bud #marijuana #weed 
3 years ago
#cannabis #spiritual #spirituality #religion #weed #marijuana #art 

Sube El Humo - Cultura Profetica.

3 years ago
#sube el humo #cultura profetica #reggae #spanish #spanish reggae #music #M.O.T.A #Mota #weed #marijuana 
sad thing is this is so true.
3 years ago
#weed #marijuana #antidepressants #psychiatrists